Academic Reading Mock Test 10-02-2019

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Academic Reading12.45 PM01.00 PM02.15 PM

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WHAT ARE DREAMS?

A. Thousands of years ago, dreams were seen as messages from the gods, and in many cultures, they are still considered prophetic. In ancient Greece, sick people slept at the temples of Asclepius, the god of medicine, in order to receive dreams that would heal them. Modern dream science really begins at the end of the 19th century with Sigmund Freud, who theorized that dreams were the expression of unconscious desires often stemming from childhood. He believed that exploring these hidden emotions through analysis could help cure mental illness. The Freudian model of psychoanalysis dominated until the 1970s when new research into the chemistry of the brain showed that emotional problems could have biological or chemical roots, as well as environmental ones. In other words, we weren’t sick just because of something our mothers did( or didn’t do), but because of some imbalance that might be cured with medication.

B. After Freud, the most important event in dream science was the discovery in the early 1950s of a phase of sleep characterized by intense brain activity and rapid eye movement (REM). People awakened in the midst of REM sleep reported vivid dreams, which led researchers to conclude that most dreaming took place during REM. Using the electroencephalograph (EEG), researchers could see that brain activity during REM resembled that of the waking brain. That told them that a lot more was going on at night than anyone had susp[ected.But what, exactly?

C. Scientists still don’t know for sure, although they have lots of theories. On one side are scientists like Harvard’s Altan Hobson, who believes that dreams are essentially random. In the 1970s, Hobson and his colleague Robert McCarley proposed what they called the”activation-synthesis ” which describes how dreams are formed by nerve signals sent out during REM sleep from a small area at the base of the brain called the pons. These signals, the researchers said, activate the image that we call dreams. That put a crimp in dream research; if dreams were meaningless nocturnal firings, what was the point of studying them?

D. Adult humans spend about a quarter of their sleep time in REM, much of it dreaming. During that time, the body is essentially paralyzed but the brain is buzzing. Scientists using PET and fMRI technology to watch the dreaming brain have found that one of the most active areas during REM is the limbic system, which controls our emotions. Much less active is the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with logical thinking. That could explain why dreams in Rem sleep often lack a coherent storyline (Some researchers have also found that people dream in Non -REM sleep as well, although those dreams generally are less vivid.) Another active part of the brain on REM sleep is the anterior cingulate cortes, which detects discrepancies. Eric Nofzinger, director  of the Sleep Neuroimaging Program at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, thinks that could be why people often figure out thorny problems in their dreams. “as if the brain surveys the internal  milieu and tries to figuyre out what it should be doing, and whether our  actions conflict  with who we are, “he says.

E . These may seem like vital mental functions, but no one has yet been able to say that REM sleep or dreaming is essential to life or even sanity.  MAO inhibitors an older class of antidepressants, essebntially block REM sleep without any detectable effects, although people do get a “REM rebound”-extra REM -if they stop the medication. That’s also true of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like Prozac, which reduce dreaming by a third to a half. Even permanently losing the ability to dream doesn’t have to be disabling. Israeli researcher Peretz Lavie has been observing a patient named YUval Chamtzani, who was injured by a fragment of shrapnel that pentrated his brain when he was 19. As a result, he gets no REM sleep and doen’t remember any dreams. But Lavie says that Chamtzani, now 55, “is probably the most normal person I know and one of the most successful ones.” He’s a lawyer, a painter and the editor of a puzzle column in a popular Israeli newspaper.

 

F . The mystery of REM sleep is that even though it may not be essential, It is ubiquitous at least in mammals and birds. But that doesn’t mean all mammals  and birds dream (or if they do, they’re certaintly not- taalking about it|). Some researchers think  REM may  have evolved for physiological reasons. ” One thing that’s unique about mammals and birds is that they regulate body  temperature.” says neuroscientist  Jerry  Siegel, director of UCLA’s Center for sleep  Research.”There’s no good evidence that any coldblooded animals has REM sleep.” REM sleep heats up the brain and non-REM cools it off, Siegel says, and that could mean that the changing sleep cycles allow  the brain to repir itself.” If seems  mean that the changing sleep is filling a basic physiological function and that dreams are a kind of epiphenomenon.”

 

G . Whatever the function of dreams  at night, they clearly  can play a role in therapy during the day. The University of Maryland’s Clara Hill, Who has  studied the use of dreams in therpy, says that dreams are a “back door,’into a patient’s thinking.” Dreams  reveal stuff  about  you that you didn’t know was there,” she says. The therpists she trains to work  with patient’s dreams are, in essence, heirs to Freud, using dream imagery to uncover  hidden emotions and feelings. Dreams provide clues to the nature of more seriuous mental illness. Schizophrenics, for example  have poor-quality dreams, usually about   objects  rather than people. “If you’re going to understand human behaviour,” says Rosalind Cartwright, a  chairman of psychology at Rush University  Medical Center in Chicago, “here’s a big piece of it. Dreaming is our own storytelling time— to help us know who we are, where we’re going and how we’re going to get there.” Cartwright has been studying depression in divorced men and women, and she is finding that “good dreamers,” people who have vivid dreams with the strong story; lines, are less likely to remain dwepressed. She thinks that dreaming helps diffuse strong emotions. “Dreaming is a mental-health acitivity,” she says.

 

Questions 1-5

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following informations?

Write the correct nuimber, A-G, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

1 . Reference of an artist’s dreams who has  versatile talents

2 . Dream actually happens to many animals

3 . Dreams are related with benefit and happiness

4 . Advanced scientific concern raised about the usefulness of investigation on dreams

Questions 6-8

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet.

6 . What were dreams regarded as by ancient people?

A . superstitious and unreliable

B . Communication  with gods and the chance to predict the future

C .  Medical relief for children with the ill desire

D . rules to follow as they fell asleep in a temple

 

7 . According to Paragraph D, which part of brain contyrols reasoning?

A . anterior cingulate cortex

B . internal cortex

C . Limbic system

D . prefrontal cortex

 

8 . What can we conclude when the author cited a reference on dreams in animals?

A . Brain temperature rises when REM pattern happens.

B . The reason why mammals are warm blooded

C . mammals are bound to appear with more frequent REM.

D . REM makes people want to drink beer with more foam.

Questions 9-13

Look at the following people and the list of statements below.

Match each statement with the correct person, A-G.

Write the correct letter, A-G in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

List of People

A. Sigmund Freud

B. Allan Hobson (Harvard)

C. Robert McCarley

D. Eric  Nofzinger

E. Jerry Siegel

F. Clara Hill

G . Rosalind Cartwright

 

9 . Dreams sometimes come along wiuth REM as no more than a trivial attachment

10 . Exploring patients dreams would be beneficial  for treatment as it reveals the unconscious thinking

11 . Dreams help people cope with difficulties they meet in the daytime

12 . Decoding  dreams would provide a remind to human desire in early days

13 . dreams a body function to control strong  emotion

Malaria Combat in Italy

A . Malaria. Bad air. Even the word is Italian, and this horribkle disease marked the life of those in the peninsula for thousands of years. Giuseppe Garibaldi’swife died of the disease, as did the country’s first Prime Minister, Cavour, in  1861. Yet by 1962, Italy was officially declared malaria free, and it has  remained so ever since.  Frank  Snowden’s study of this success story is a remarkable piece of historical work. Original, crystal-clear, analytical and passionate, snowden (who has previously written about cholera ) takes us to areas historian have rarely visited before.

B. Everybody now knows that malaria is carried by mosquitoes. Malaria has always been the subject of research for medical practitioners from time immemorial. However, many ancient texts, especially medical literature, mention of various aspects. Early man, confronting the manifestations of malaria, attributed the fevers to supernatural influences: evil spirits,  angered deities, or the black magic of sorcerers. But in the 19th century, most experts believed that the diseasew was not produced by unclean air (“miasma” or “poisoning of the air”). Two Americans, Josiah Clark Nott and Lewis Daniel Beauperthy, echoed Crawford’s ideas. Nott in his essay ” Yellow  Fever Contrasted with Bilious Fever,” published in 1850,  dismissed the miasma theory as worthless, arguing that microscopic insects somehow transmitted by mosquitoes caused both malaria and yellow fever. Others made a link bewtween swamps, water, and m,alaria, but did not make the further leap towards insects. The consequences of these theories were that little was done to combat the disease before the end of the century. Things became so bad that 11m Italians (from a  total population of 25m ) were “permanently at risk”. In malarial zones, the life expeectancy of land workers was a terrifying 22.5 years. Those who escaped death were weakened or suffered from splenomegaly-a “painful enlargment of the spleen” and “a lifeless stare”. The economic impact of the disease was immense. Epidemics were blamed on southern Italians, given the widespread belief that malaria was hhereditary. In the 1880s such theories began to collapse as the dreaded moswuito was identified as the real culprit.

C . Italian scientuist, drawing on the pioneering work of French doctor Alphonse Laveran, were able to predict the cycles of fever but it was in Rome that further key discoveries were made. Giovanni battista Grassi, a  naturalist, found that a particular type  of mosquito was  the carries of malaria. By experimenting on healthy volunteers (mosquitoes were  released into  rooms where they drank the blood of the human guinea pigs), grassi was able to make the direct link nbetween  the insecxts ( all femmalesw of a certain kind) and the disease. Soon, doctors and scientists made another startling discovery: the mosquitoes themselves were also infected and not mere carriers. Every year, during the mosquito season, malarial blood  was moved around the population by the insects. Definitive proof of these new theories was obtained after an extraordinary seriues of ecperiments in Italy, where healthy people were introduced  into m,alarial zones but kept free of mosquito bites- and remained well. The new  Italian state had  the necessary information tto tackle the disease.

D .  a complicated approache was adopted, which made use of quinine a drug obtained from tree bark which hasd long been used to combat fever, but was now sewern as a crucial part of the war on malaria. Italy introduced a quinine law and a quinine tax in 1904, and the drug was administered  to large  numvbers  of rural workers. XDespiter its often terrible side-effects (the headaches produced were known as the “quinine- buzz”) the drug was successful in limiting the spread of the disease, and in breaking cycles of infection. In addition, Italy set up rural health centers and invested heavily in education programmes. Malaria, as Snowden shows, was not just a medical problem, but a social and regional issue, and could only be defeated through multi-layered strategies. Politics was itself transformed by the anti-malarial campaigns.

E . It was originally decided to give quinine to all those in certain regions even healthy people; peasants were often suspicious of medicine being forced upon them. doctors were sometimes met with hostility and refusal, and many were dubbed “poisoners”. Despite these problems, the strategy was hugely successful. Deaths from malaria fell by some 80% in the first decade of the 20th century and some areas escaped altogether from the scourage of the disease.

F . Shamefully, the Italian malaria expert Alberto Missiroli had a role to play in the disaster: he did not distribute quinine, despite being well aware of the epidemic to come. Snowden claims that Missiroli was already preparing a new strategy with the support of the US Rockefeller Foundation-using a new pesticide, DDT. Missiroli allowed the epidemic to spread, in order to create the ideal conditions for a massive, and lucrative, human experiment. Fifty-five thousand cases of malaria were recorded in the province of Littoria alone in 1944. It is estimated that more than a third of those in the affected area contracted the disease. Thousands, nobody knows how many, died.

G . With the war over, the US government and the Rockefeller Foundation were free to experiment. DDT was sprayed from the air and 3m Italians had their bodies covered with the chemical. The effects were dramatic, and nobody really cared about the toxic effects of the chemical. By 1962 malaria was more or less gone from the whole peninsula. The last cases were noted in a poor region of Sicily. One of the final victim to die of the disease in Italy was the popular cyclist, Fausto Coppi. He had contracted malaria in Africa in 1960, and the failure of doctors in the north of Italy to spot the disease was a sign of the times. A few decades earlier, they would have immediately noticed the tell-tale signs; it was later claimed that a small dose of quinine would have saved his life.

H . As there are still more than 1m deaths every year from malaria worldwide, Snowden’s  book also has contemporary relevance. This is a disease that affects every level of the societies where it is rampant. As snowden writes: “In Italy malaria undermined agricultural productivity, decimated the army, sestroyed communities and left families impoverished.” The economic miracle oif the 50s and 60s which  made Italy into a mnodern industrial nation would not have been possible without the eradication of malaria. Moreover, this book convincingly argues that the disease was “an integral part  of the big  picture of modren Italian history.” This magnificent study, beautifully written and impeccably documented, deserves an audience beyond specialists in history, or in Italy. It also providews us with “a message of hope for a world struggling with the great present-day medical emergency”.

Questions 14-17

Complete the following  summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 2.

Using No more than two words from the reading  Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

 

Theories for malaria origin have always been the issue of research for medical  prctitioners from the ancient time. although the link between malario and mosquito was established lately , It has been recorded in words that ………14..,………., including mosquito, may play the major culprits. In the 19th century, most experts rejected the idea of the miasma theory which related malaria to ……….15…………… Even another widespread theory arose that  southern Italians were  blamed, to whom malaria was …….16…… In southern Italy, the situation became so severe that near half the Italiabns population was thought to be “permanently at risk.” In malarial areas, the ……. 17……. of rural workers was surprisingly shorter. In the 1880s such theories began to withdraw as the mosquito was identified as the true cause.

Questions 18-21

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage? in boxes 18-21 on your answer sheet write

YES                     if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO                    if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN             if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

18 . The volunteers in Grassi experiments were from all  parts over the Italy.

19 . Healthy people could remaikn safe in the malaria-infextious zone if they did not have mosquito bites.

20 . Quinine is an effective drug which had long been used to combat malaria.

21 . Eradicting malaria was a goal combined both medical and political significance.

Questions 22-27

Reading Passage 2 has 8 paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraph ciontains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H in boxes, 22-27 on your answer sheet.

22 . A breakthrough was found that mosquito was the carrier of malria.

23 .  a scientist intentionally failed to restrict the epidemic area.

24 . This successful story still holds true for today’s readers worldwide.

25 . One of the final cases reported to die of malaria in Italy

26 . The negative symptoms of the a highly effective drug

27 . a list of speculative hypothesis were cited.

 

Development of Public mangement theory

Bureaucracy management : The classicone

A . Several theories bridged the gap between strictly private and public sector management. One good example is Max Weber exploring sociologist, who explored the ideal bureaucracy in The Protestant ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Bureaucratic Theory was developed by a German.Sociologist  and political economist  Max Weber (1864-1920). According to him, bureaucracy is the most efficient form of organisation. The organisation has a well-defined line of authority. It has clear rules and regulations which are strictly followed. according to Max Weber, there are thrtee types of power in an organisation: 1. Traditional Power, 2. Charismaticpower, and 3. Bureaucratic Power or Legal Power.

The characteristics or features of Bureaucracy  Orgabnisation

B . Weber admired Bureaucracy for its trustworthiness. The Bureaucracy was constitued by a group of professional, ethical public officials. These servants dedicate themselves to the public in return  for the security of job tenure among the many advantages of public employment. There is a high degree of division of Labour and specialisation as well as a defined Hierarchy of authority. There are well defined rules and regulations which follows the principle of Rationality, Objectively and Consistency. These rules cover all the duties and rights of the employees. These rules must be strictly followed. Impersonal relations among the member of the organisation. Interpersonal relatuions are based on posiotions and not on personalities

C . Bureaucracy organisation is a very rigid type of organisation. Too much emphasiss on rules and regulations which are rigid and inflexible. It does not give importance to human relationsa. No importance is also given to informal groups which nowdays p[lay an important role in all business organisationss. Yet, too much importance is given to the technical qualifications of the employees for promotion and transfers. Dedication and commitment of the employee is not considered. It is suitable for government organisations. It is also  suyitable for organisations where change is very slow. There will be unnecessary delay in decision-making due to formalities and rules. It is approppriate for static organizations. There is difficulty in coordination and communication.

D .  Herbal Simon, Chester Barnard , and Charles Lindblon are among the first of those recognized as early  American public   administrators. These men  ushered in an era during which the field gained recognition as independent and unique, despite its multidisciplinary nature. simon contributed theoretical separation to discern management, decisions based on values. since one cannot make completely responsible decisions with public resources based solely on personal values, one must attempt to upon objectively determined facts. Simon  developed other relevant theories as well. Similar to Lindblom’s subsequently discussed critique of comprehensive rationality, Simon also taught that a strictly economic man, one who maximizes returns or values by making decisions based upon complete information in unlimited time, is unrealistic. Instead, most public administrators use a sufficient amount of information to make a satisfactory decision: they” satisfice.”

E . In decision- making, Siumon believed that agents face uncertainty about the future and costs in acquiring information in the present. These factors limit the extent to which agents can make a fully rational decision, thus they possess only” bounded rationality” and must make deci9sion by “Satisficing,” or choosing that  which  might not be optional but which will make them  happy enough. ” Rational behavior, in economics, mean that individuals maximizes his utilkity function. Under the constraints they face (e.g. their budget constraint, limited choices,…..) in pursuit of their self-interest.

F . Chester Barnard was also one of the watershed scholars. Barnard published “The Economy of Incentives”(1938), in an attempt to explain individual participation in an organization. Barnard explained organizations as systems of exchange. Low-level employees must have more incentive to remain with the organization for which they exchange their labor and loyalty. The organization (and higher level employees) must derive sufficient  bnenefit from its employees to keep them, The net pull of the organization is determined by mnaterial rewards, environmental conditions, and other intangibles like recognition. He gives great importance to persuasion much more than to economic incentives. He described four general and frour specific incentives including Money and other material inducements; Personal non-material opportunities for distinction; DESIREABLE PHYSICal  conditions of work; Ideal benefactions, such as pride of workmanship etc.

A new humanist era: Rethinking power and management

G . Humanists emberace a dynamic concept of an employee and management techniques. This requires a theoretical shift away from the idea that an  employee is a cog in the industrial machine. Rather, empoloyees are unique individuals with goals, needs desires, etc.

H .  The humanist era ushered in oyther possible interpretations of such topics as power and management. One of the most significant was Douglas McGregor’s “Theory X and TheoryY. ” McGregor’s work provided a basis  for a management framework, a structure upon whose rungs the classic and new-age management might be hung. first, commonly held by early mangement theorists, Theory X begins with the assumption that humans possess an inherent aversion to work. Employees must therefore be coerced and controlled if management expects to see results. Further, lazy humans prefer direction bordering micromanagement whenever possible.

I . Theory Y is much more compatible with the humanist tradition. This begins with the assumption that work is an natural  for humans as rest or play. Further, employees will direct and control themselves as they complete objectives. Humans learn naturally  and seek responsinility. Consequently, managers need only to steer employees in a cooperative manner toward goals that serve the organizatiuon. There is room for many to create and share power.

J . The Z- Organization can be thought of as a complimentary thirds element to McGregor’s dochotomy. Z- organizations are a Japanese organizations are a Japanese organizational model. Similar to Theory Y management, Z organizations place a large degree of responsibility upon the employees. Further, relatively low-level employees are entrusted with the freedom to be creartive, ” wander around the organization” and become truly unique, company-specific employees. However, employees achieve only after “agreeing on a central set of objectives and ways of doing business” In Z Organizations, decision-making is democratic and participatory. Despite the many advantAGES OF THIS ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL, THERE ARE SEVERAL DRAW-BACKS. tHESE INCLUDE THE DEPREDATION OF A LARGE PROFESSIONAL DIstance-de personalization is impossible in Z-organizations. Since, in reality, there is a high percentage of workers would like to work for the financial return than the job objectives. A high level of self-discipline is also necessary.

Questions 28-35

Choose Two appropriate letters and fill in boxes 28-29

What are the features and advantages for bureaucratic Management?

A . There are equal opportunities coming  from little  hierarchy of authority among companies.

B . Employees’ promotion can be much fairer which is based on job duties not on characters

C .  employees enjoy a greater freedom of duties than their strict right

D . Selection and Promotion is based on mastery of new techniology.

E . These employees can dedicate themselves to the public  for the stability of a long term job.

Choose Two appropriate letters and fill in boxes 30-31

What are the limitations for the ideas of Bureaucratic Management?

A . Commitment of the employee is not taken into consideration enough.

B . There is difficulty in decision-making based on formalities and rules.

C . Employees are casually organised as no importance is given to formal groups.

D . There is difficulty in the enforcement of rules and regulations.

E . It is not applicable to dynamic organisations where is verry fast.

 

Choose Two appropriate letters and in boxes 32-33

What are the aims  of management as Douglas McGregor’s work of the “Theory Y.”

A . Employees must be coerced and controlled if management expects to see resu,lts.

B . Employees has a natural tendency for rest por play.

C . Humans will not automatically  seek responsiblitity.

D . managers may guide employees in a cooperative manner toward objectives

E . There is little room for a manager to designate or share his power.

 

 

Choose Two appropriate letters and fill in boxes 34-35

What are the limitations for the “Theory Z.”

A . decision-making  is democratic and participatory

B . organization mode has an inherent design fault

C .  not all employee set higher interest in the job than that  of wages

D . Personalization remains un-eliminated in organizations

E . self-dicipline is an unnessary quality

 

Questions 36-40

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Writethe appropriate letters A-E in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

NB  Some people may match  more than one ideas

 

A . Mark Weber

B . McGregor

C .  Herbert Simon

D . Chester Barnard

E . Charles Lindblom

 

36 . Employees like to follow professional, ethical public officials to secure a job.

37 . Highly effective can be achieved only after “agreeing on a core of objectives and method of doing things.

38 . Managers need to take the employees emotional feeling, besides the material rewards, into the incentives system.

39 . Individuals can maximize their self-interest when all the budget and choices are utilised well

40 . The assumption  that humans possess a natural dislike to work who ought to be forced and controlled.

 

WHAT ARE DREAMS?

WHAT ARE DREAMS?

A. Thousands of years ago, dreams were seen as messages from the gods, and in many cultures, they are still considered prophetic. In ancient Greece, sick people slept at the temples of Asclepius, the god of medicine, in order to receive dreams that would heal them. Modern dream science really begins at the end of the 19th century with Sigmund Freud, who theorized that dreams were the expression of unconscious desires often stemming from childhood. He believed that exploring these hidden emotions through analysis could help cure mental illness. The Freudian model of psychoanalysis dominated until the 1970s when new research into the chemistry of the brain showed that emotional problems could have biological or chemical roots, as well as environmental ones. In other words, we weren’t sick just because of something our mothers did( or didn’t do), but because of some imbalance that might be cured with medication.

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