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Ancient Chinese Chariots
A. The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium Archaeological work at the Ruins of Yin(near modern-day Anyang), which has been identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of places and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices.
B. The tomb of Fu Hao is an archaeological site at Yinxu, the ruins of the ancient Shang Dynasty capital Yin, within the modern city of Anyang in Henan province, China. Discovered in 1976, It was identified as the final resting place of the queen and military general Fu Hao. The artifacts unearthed within the grave included jade objects, bone objects, bronze objects etc. These grave goods are confirmed by the oracle texts, which constitute almost all of the first handwritten record we possess of the Shang Dynasty. Below the corpse was a small pit holding the remains of six sacrificial dogs and along the edge lay the skeletons of human slaves, evidence of human sacrifice.
C. The Terracotta soldiers were accidentally discovered on 29 March 1974 to the east of Xian in Shaanxi. The terracotta soldiers were accidentally discovered when a group of local farmers was digging a well during a drought around 1.6km (1 mile) east of the Qin Emperors tomb around at Mount Li (Lishan), a region riddled with underground springs and watercourses. Experts currently place the entire number of soldiers at 8000 with 130 chariots (130cm long). 530 horses and 150 cavalry horses helping to ward off any dangers in the afterlife. In contrast, the burial of Tutank hamun yielded six complete but dismantled chariots of unparalleled richness and sophistication. Each was designed for two people ( 90 cm long ) and had its axle sawn through to enable it to be brought along the narrow corridor into the tomb.
D. Excavation of ancient Chinese chariots has confirmed the descriptions of them in the earliest texts. Wheels were constructed from a variety of woods: elm provided the hub, rose-wood the spokes and oak the fellows. The hub was drilled through to form an empty space into which the tampering axle was fitted, the whole being covered with leather to retain lubricating oil. Though the number of spokes varied, a wheel by the fourth century BC usually had eighteen to thirty-two of them. Records show how elaborate was the testing of each completed wheel: flotation and weighing were regarded as the best measures of balance, but even the empty spaces in the assembly were checked with millet grains. One outstanding constructional asset of the ancient Chinese wheel was dishing. dishing refers to the dishlike shape of an advanced wooden wheel, which looks rather like a flat core. On occasion, they chose to strengthen a dished whee with a pair of struts running from rim to rim on each of the hubs. As these extra supports were inserted separately into the fellows, they would have added even greater strength to the wheel. Leather-wrapped up the edge of the wheel aimed to retain bronze.
E. Within a millennium, however, Chinese chariots makers had developed a vehicle with shafts, the precursor of the true carriage or cart. This design did not make its appearance in Europe until the end of the Roman Empire. Because the shafts curved upwards, and the hardness pressed against a horse’s shoulders, not his neck, the shaft chariot was incredibly efficient. The halberd was also part of a chariot standard weaponry. This halberd usually measured well over 3 meters in length, which meant that a chariot warrior wielding it sideways could strike down the charioteer in a passing chariot. The speed of chariot which was tested on the sand was quite fast. At speed, these passes were very dangerous for the crews of both chariots.
F. The advantages offered by the new chariots were not entirely missed. They could see how there were literally the warring states, whose conflicts lasted down the Qin unification of China. Qin Shi Huang was Buried in the most opulent tomb complex ever constructed in China, a sprawling, city-size collection of underground caverns containing everything the emperor would need for the afterlife. Even a collection of terracotta armies called Terra-Cotta Warriors was buried in it. The ancient Chinese, along with many cultures including ancient Egyptians, believed that items and even people buried with a person could be taken with to the afterlife.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
- When disco0vered, the written records of the grave goods proved to be accurate.
- Human skeletons in Anyang tomb were identified ad soldiers who were killed in the war.
- The Terracotta Army was discovered by people lived nearby by chance.
- The size of the King Tutankhamen’s tomb is bigger than that of in Qin Emperor’s tomb.
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.
5. The hub is made wood from the tree of ……………………………..
- The room through the hub was to put tempering axle in which is wrapped up by leather aiming to retain……………………………..
- The number of spokes varied from …………………………………to ………………………………
- the shape of wheel resembles a …………………………………
- Two ………………………… was used to strengthen the wheel.
10. Leather-wrapped up the edge of the wheel aimed to remain…………………………
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
- What body part of a horse has released the pressure from to the shoulder
- What kind of road surface did the researchers measure the speed of the chariot?
- What part of this afterlife palace was the Emperor Qin Shi Huang buried?
A. Although it was called a tiger, it looked like a clog with black stripes on its back and it was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. yet, despite its fame for being one of the most fabled animals in the world, it is one of the least understood of Tasmania’s native animals. The scientific name for the Tasmanian tiger is Thylacine and it is believed that they have become extinct in the 20 th century.
B. Fossils of thylacines dating from about almost 12 million years ago have been dug up at various places in Victoria, South Australia 7,000 years ago, but have probably been extinct on the continent for 2,000 years. This is believed to be because of the introduction of dingoes around 8,000 years ago. Because of disease, thylacine numbers may have been decline was certainly accelerated by the new arrivals. The last known Titsmanijin Tiger died in I Lobar! Zoo in 193fi and the animal is officially classified as extinct. Technically, this means that it has not been officially sighted in the wild or captivity for 50 years. However, there are still unsubstantiated sightings.
C. Hans Naarding, whose study of animals had taken him around the world, was conducting a survey of a species of endangered migratory bird. the hat he saw that night is now regarded as the most credible sighting recorded of thylacine that many believe has been extinct for more than 70 years.
D. “I had to work at night.” Naarding takes up the story.”I was in the habit of intermittently shining aspotlight around. The beam fell on an animal in front of the vehicle, less than 10m away. Instead of risking movement by grabbing for a camera, I decided to register very carefully what I was seeing. The animal was about the size of a small shepherd dog, though, was a slightly sloping hindquarter, with a fairly thick tail being a straight continuation of the backline of the animal. It had 12 distinct stripes on its back, continuing onto its butt.\ knew perfectly well what I was seeing. As soon as I reached for the camera it disappeared into the tea-tree undergrowth and scrub.”
E. The director of Tasmania’s National Parks at the time, Peter Morrow, decided in his wisdom to keep Naarding’s sighting of the thylacine secret for two years. When the news finally broke, it was accompanied by pandemonium.” I was besieged by television crews, including four to five from Japan and others from the United Kingdom, Germany, New Zealand, and SouthAmerica, “said Naarding.
F. Government and private search parties combed the region, but no further sightings were made. The tiger, as always, had escaped to its lair, a place many insist exists only in our imagination. But since then, the thylacine has staged something of a comeback, becoming part of Australian mythology.
G. There have been more than 4000 claimed sightings of the beast since it supposedly died out, and the average claims each year reported to authorities now number 150. Associate professor of zoology at the University of Tasmania, Randolph Rose, has said he dreams of seeing a thylacine. But Rose, who in his 35 years in Tasmania academia has fielded countless reports of thylacine sightings, is now convinced that his dream will go unfulfilled.
H. “The consensus among conservationists is that usually; any animal with a population base of less than 1000 is headed for extinction within 60 years,” says Rose. “Sixty years ago, there was only one thylacine that we know of, and that was in Hobart Zoo,” he says.
I. Dr. David Pemberton, curator of zoology at the Tasmanian at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, whose Ph.D. thesis was on the thylacine, says that despite scientific thinking that 500 animals are required to sustain a population, the Florida panther is down to a dozen or so animals and, while it does have some inbreeding problems is still ticking along. ” I’ll take punt sand to say that, if we manage to find a thylacine in the scrub, it means that there are 50-plus animals out there.”
J. After all, animals can be notoriously elusive. The strange fish are known as the coelacanth’ with its “proto-legs”, was thought to have died out along with the dinosaurs 700 million years ago until a specimen was dragged to the surface in a shark net off the south-east coast of South Africa in 1938.
K. Wildlife biologist Nick Mooney has the unenviable task of investigating all “sightings” of the tiger totaling 4000 claimed sightings of the beast since it supposedly died out, and the average claims each year reported to authorities now number 150. It was Mooney who was first consulted late last month about the authenticity of digital photographic images purportedly taken by a German tourist while on a recent bushwalk in the state. On face value, Mooney says, the account of the sighting, and the two photographs submitted as the proof amount to one of the most convincing cases for the species survival he has seen.
L. And Mooney have seen it all the mistakes, the hoaxes, the illusions and the plausible accounts of sightings. hoaxers aside, most people who report sightings end up believing they have seen a thylacine, and are themselves believable to the point they could pass a lie-detector test, according to Mooney. Others, having tabled a credible report, then become utterly obsessed like the Tasmanian who has registered 99 thylacine sightings to date. Mooney has seen individuals bankrupted by the obsession and families destroyed. “It is a blind optimism that something is rather than a cynicism that something isn’t,” Mooney says. “If something crosses the road, it’s not a case of I wonder what that was?” Rather, it is a case of that’s a thylacine!’ It is a bit like a gold prospector’s blind faith, it has got to be there.”
M. However, Mooney treats all reports on face value. “I never try to embarrass people or make fools of them. But the fact that I don’t pack the car immediately they ring can often be taken as ridicule. Obsessive characters get irate that someone in my position is not out there when they think the thylacine is there.”
N. But Hans Naarding, whose sighting of a striped animal two decades ago was the highlight of “a life of animal spotting”, remains bemused by the time and money people waste on tiger searches. He says resources would be better applied to save the Tasmanian devil and helping migratory bird populationpopulATIONS THAT ARE DECLINING AS A RESULT OF SHRINKING WETLANDS ACROSS Australia.
O. Could the thylacine still be out there? “Sure,” Naarding says. But he also says any discovery of surviving thylacine would be “rather pointless.”. “How do you save a species from extinction? What could you do with it? If there are thylacine out there, they are better off right where they are.”
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 14-18on your answer sheet.
|The Tasmanian tiger, also called thylacine, resembles the look of a dog and has 14………………………….. on its fur coat. many fossils have been found, showing that thylacines had existed as early as 15…………….years ago. They lived throughout 16…………………..before disappearing from the mainland. And soon after the 17…………………. settlers arrived the size of ………18…………………. population in Tasmania shrunk at a higher speed.|
Look at the following statements ( Questions 19-24) and the list of people below. Match each statement with the correct person, A, B, C or D
Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 19-24 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
- His report of seeing a live thylacine in the wild attracted international interest.
- many eyes- witnesses’ reports are not trustworthy.
21. It doesn’t require q certain number of animals to ensure the survival of a species.
- There is no hope of finding a surviving Tasmanian tiger.
- Do not disturb them if there are any Tasmanian tigers still living today.
- The interpretation of evidence can be affected by people’s beliefs.
List of people
A. Hans Naarding
B. Randolph Rose
C. David Pemberton
D. Nick Mooney
Choose the correct letter. A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet.
- Hans Naarding’s sighting has resulted in
A. Government and organizations’ cooperative efforts
B. extensive interests to find a living thylacine.
C. increase of the number of reports of thylacine worldwide.
D. growth of popularity of thylacine in literature.
- The example of the coelacanth is to illustrate
A. it lived in the same period with dinosaurs.
B. how dinosaurs evolved legs.
C. some animals are difficult to catch in the wild.
D. extinction of certain species can be mistaken.
27. Mooney believes that all sighting reports should be
A. given some credit as they claim even if they are untrue.
B. acted upon immediately.
C. viewed as equally untrustworthy.
D. questioned and carefully investigated.
The concept of childhood in western countries
The history of childhood has been a topic of interest in social history since the highly influential 1960 book Centuries of Childhood, written by French historian Philippe Aries. He argued that “childhood” is a concept created by modern society.
A. One of the most hotly debated issues in the history of childhood has been whether childhood is itself a recent invention. The historians Philippe Ares argued that in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (up to about the end of the fifteenth century) children were regarded as miniature adults, with all the intellect and personality that this implies. He scrutinized medieval pictures and diaries and found no distinction between children and adults as they shared similar leisure activities and often the same type of work. Aries, however, forsaken or despised. The idea of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children that particular nature which distinguishes the child from the adult, even the young adult.
B. There is a long tradition of the children of the poor playing a functional role in contributing to the family income by working either inside or outside the home. In this sense, children are seen as useful. Back in the Middle Ages, children as young as 5 or 6 did important chores for their parents and from the sixteenth century, were often encouraged |( or forced) to leave the family by the age of 9 or 10 to work as servants for wealthier families or to be apprenticed to a trade.
C. With industrialization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a new demand for child labor was created, and, many children were forced to work for long hours, in mines, wo9rkshops, and factories. Social reformers began to question whether laboring long hours from an early age would harm children’s growing bodies. They began to recognize the potential of carrying out systematic studies to monitor how far these early deprivations might be affecting children’s development.
D. Gradually, the concerns of the reformers began to impact on the working conditions of children. In Britain, the factory Act of 1833 signified the beginning of legal protection of children from exploitation and was linked to the rise of schools for factory children. The worst forms of child exploitation were gradually eliminated, partly through factory reform but also through the influence of trade unions and economic changes during the nineteenth century which made some forms of child labor redundant. Childhood was increasingly seen as a time for play and education for all children not just for a privileged minority. Initiating children into work as useful children became less of a priority. As the age for starting full- time work was delayed, so childhood was increasingly understood as a more extended phase of dependency, development, and learning. even so, work continued to play a significant, if a less central role in children’s lives throughout the later nineteenth and twentieth century. And the useful child has become a controversial image during the first decade of the twenty-first century especially in the context of global concern about large numbers of the world’s children engaged in child labor.
E. The Factory act of 1833 established half-time schools which allowed children to work and attend school. but in the 1840s, a large proportion of children never went to school, and if they did, they left by the age of 10 or 11. the situation was very different by the end of the nineteenth century in Britain. the school becomes central to images of
a normal childhood.
F. Attending school was no longer a privilege and all children were expected to spend a significant part of their day in a classroom. By going to school, children’s lives were now separated from domestic life at home and from the adult world of work. School became an institution dedicated to shaping the minds, behaviors, and morals of the young. Education dominated the management of children’s waking hours, not just through the hours spent in classrooms but through ‘home’ work, the growth of ‘after school’ activities and the importance attached to parental involvement.
G. Industrialization, urbanization and mass schooling also set new challenges for those responsible for protecting children welfare and promoting their learning. Increasingly, children were being treated as a group with distinctive needs and they were organized into groups according to their age. For example, teachers needed to know what to expect of children in their classrooms, what kinds of instruction were appropriate for different age groups and how best to assess children’s progress. they also wanted tools that could enable them to sort and select children according to their abilities and potential.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
Write your answers in boxes 28-34 on your answer sheet.
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
- Aries pointed out that children did different types of work as adults during the Middle Age.
- During the Middle Age going to work necessarily means children were unloved indicated by Aries.
- Scientists think that overworked labor damages the health of young children.
- The rise of trade union majorly contributed to the protection of children from exploitation in the 19th century.
- By the aid of half-time schools, most children went to school in the mid of 19 century.
- In 20 century almost all children need to go to school in a full-time schedule.
- Nowadays, children’s needs were much differentiated and categorized based on how old they are.
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet.
- What is the controversial topic arises with the French historian Philippe Aries’s concept
- What image for children did Aries believe to be like in Western Europe during the Middle Ages
- What historical event generated the need for great amount child labor to work a long time in 18 and 19 century
- What legal format initial the protection of children from exploitation in 19th centenary
- what the activities were more and more regarded as being preferable for almost all children time in 19th centenary
- Where has been the central area for children to spend largely of their day as people’s expectation in modern society?