Academic reading practice test 9 PHRENOLOGY – INTERPRETING THE MIND

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Academic reading practice test 9 PHRENOLOGY INTERPRETING THE

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[shc_shortcode class=”shc_mybox”]PHRENOLOGY – INTERPRETING THE MIND
Phrenology is the doctrine that proposes that psychological traits of personality, intellect,
temperament, and character are ascertainable from analysis of the protrusions and depressions
in the skull. It was an idea created by Franz Joseph Gall in 1796. Gall referred to his new idea
in English as cranioscopy. It was only later that Johanne Spurzheim, one of Gall’s students,
labeled the idea phrenology after Gall’s death. Gall’s idea was spurred when he noticed that
university classmates who could memorize great amounts of information with relative ease
seemed to have prominent eyes and large foreheads. He speculated that other internal
qualities, besides memory, might be indicated by an external feature also. Gall theorised that
traits were located in particular regions of the brain. Enlargements or depressions in the brain
in particular areas meant a greater than normal or less than normal quantity of the given trait. It
was assumed that the external contour of the skull accurately reflected the external contour of
the brain where traits were localized.

According to lay theory there exist three core basic signs for spotting liars. These are
speaking quickly and excessive fluctuations in pitch of voice, the liar becoming fidgety and
hesitant when questioned on detail, and failure to make eye-contact. There is nothing too
perplexing about that. Yet, a good liar will be just as aware of these as the person they’re lying
to and thus will ensure that eye contact especially is evident. Shifty eyes can indicate that
someone is feeling emotional perhaps from a lie, or perhaps just from nerves as a result of
lying. Of course, this does not apply to instances where eye contact is non-existent, like during
a telephone conversation. Psychologist Paul Eckman states that extensive use of details can
make lies more believable. But they can also often trip up the liar. If the details change or
contradict each other, you should suspect you’re being had

The History of Paper
When we think of the origins of paper, our minds might wander back over 5000 years ago to the
Nile river valley in Egypt. It was there that a marsh grass called Cyperous Papyrus flourished.
The Egyptians cut thin strips from the plant’s stem and softened them in the muddy waters of
the Nile. These strips were then layered in right angles to form a kind of mat. The mat was then
pounded into a thin sheet and left in the sun to dry. The resulting sheets were ideal for writing on.
Since they were also lightweight and portable they became the writing medium of choice of the
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans for record keeping, spiritual texts and works of art.

Academic reading practice test 9 PHRENOLOGY INTERPRETING THE

Academic reading practice test 9 PHRENOLOGY INTERPRETING THE

Academic reading practice test 9 PHRENOLOGY INTERPRETING THE

Academic reading practice test 9 PHRENOLOGY INTERPRETING THE


Academic reading practice test 8 Myxomatosis is a highly lethal disease

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